Polyester foam, for example, is lightweight and economical, though usually leaking air to some degree, but is degraded by exposure to ozone, UV light, humidity and elevated temperatures, significantly limiting useful life with adequate performance. Types of speakers and how they work: The resulting radiation patterns may be intended to more closely simulate the way sound is produced by real instruments, or simply create a controlled energy distribution from the input signal some using this approach are called monitors , as they are useful in checking the signal just recorded in a studio. Gromkogovoriteli i ikh primenenie , 2nd ed. Acousticians, in studying the radiation of sound sources have developed some concepts important to understanding how loudspeakers are perceived.

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This curve shows the volume of conductor as a function of cone diameter at which the efficiency is the same whether the conductor is aluminum or copper. Articles lacking in-text citations from October All articles lacking in-text citations Accuracy disputes from May All accuracy disputes All stub articles. A less expensive variation on this theme is the use of a flame for the driver, as flames contain ionized electrically charged gases.

The loud speaker was assumed mounted in a large baffle, as shown in Fig. Retrieved 24 September The coil is oriented co-axially inside the gap; it moves back and forth within a small circular volume a hole, slot, or groove in the magnetic structure. A few have backings that limit the dipole radiation pattern.


Since the prototype the speaker’s abilities to reproduce frequencies got even better. While most drivers are dipoles, depending on the enclosure to which they are attached, they may radiate as monopoles, dipoles or bipoles.

Planar magnetic speakers having printed or embedded conductors on a flat diaphragm are sometimes described as ribbons, but are not truly ribbon speakers.

Retrieved 14 April Retrieved March 30, Three-way loudspeaker switchable between bi-amped and fully passive modes. Below is an example of a flat panel style diaphragm speaker.

ESS, a California manufacturer, licensed the design, employed Heil, and produced a range of speaker systems using his tweeters during the s and s. The voltage used is often 2. A compromise was therefore necessary between loudspeaker efficiency, which required the strongest possible magnet, and weight.

Loudspeaker – Wikipedia

The speaker was crudely able to reproduce noise and just an experiment. Rather, they are conventional speakers that can be used with digital sound sources e. The invention set forth in claim 3 characterized in that the effective diameter of the diaphragm is greater than 12 inches.

The driving force covers a large percentage of the membrane surface loudspeakker reduces resonance problems inherent in coil-driven flat diaphragms. Some rather basic and here-to-fore unknown information is brought to light by an examination of Fig. Schottky invented the first ribbon loudspeaker together with Dr. However, a rigid enclosure reflects sound internally, which can then be transmitted back through the loudspeaker diaphragm—again resulting in degradation of sound quality.

Electridynamic voice coil 5 is rigidly attached to the diaphragm I by any of the well-known means employed in the art.


History and Types of Loudspeakers

Contrary to this accepted general belief, I have found it possible’ to design direct-radiator speaklers that have very high efficiencies, comparabl’8 fo the efficiencies realized in horn type loud speakers.

They have the disadvantage that the diaphragm excursion is severely limited because of practical construction limitations—the further apart the stators are positioned, the higher the voltage must be to achieve acceptable efficiency. The standard flat panel speaker has a exciter attached to a square panel. It features an actuator using a magnetostrictor that extends and shrinks in line with magnetic field changes. If mounted on a finite baffle, and these out of phase waves are allowed to interact, dipole peaks and nulls in the frequency response result.

There are many ways to construct a tweeter today.

Individual drivers are used to reproduce different frequency ranges. Plasma is ionized gas, or current sent through a electodynamic. In this case the individual speakers are referred to as “drivers” and the entire unit is called a loudspeaker. Further reading on planar speakers: If the loud speaker is mounted so that only one side radiates, as shown in Fig.